Read the following article to find out about endemic diseases in Kenya, who they attack, and areas prone to these diseases

An Endemic disease refers to a medical condition that is constantly present among a specific population or in a particular geographical region.

The yearly occurrence of the endemic disease serves as a benchmark for its ongoing existence.


Malaria is a disease that can be life-threatening and is predominantly found in tropical regions. While it is possible to prevent and cure malaria, timely diagnosis and effective treatment are crucial.

If left untreated, uncomplicated cases of malaria can develop into severe forms of the disease, which have a high risk of fatality.

Malaria poses a high risk to pregnant women and children as they tend to experience the most severe symptoms of the disease.

A baby under a mosquito net [Guardian]

READ: MOH sets target of making Kenya ‘malaria-free’ by 2030

In Kenya, prevention efforts are often aimed at these vulnerable groups. Among the population, school-aged children between the ages of 5 and 15 have the highest prevalence rate of malaria and therefore bear a significant burden.

While there have been several studies conducted on malaria in children and young adults, the majority of these studies have focused on clinical treatment and prevention approaches.

Malaria is prone around Lake Victoria and the Coast.


The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is responsible for attacking the immune system of the body. When left untreated, it can progress to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Unfortunately, there is currently no known cure for HIV, and once someone is infected, the virus remains in their body for the rest of their life. However, with proper medical care, it is possible to manage and control HIV.

Based on the Kenya Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (KENPHIA), the prevalence of HIV is higher in women, with a rate of 6.6%, compared to men, who have a rate of 3.1%, indicating a notable gender gap.

County HIV Prevalence by percentage in 2017

Homa Bay 25.7Siaya 23.7Kisumu 19.3Migori 14.7Kisii 8Turkana 7.6Nairobi 6.8Busia 6.8Nyamira 6.4

Counties with high HIV rates

In fact, the burden of HIV on women is even more significant in the age group between 20-34 years, where the disparity is over three times higher, as reported by the Ministry of Health in 2020.


Tuberculosis, commonly referred to as TB, is a contagious disease that spreads from person to person through the air.

TB remains a significant public health issue both at the global and national level. Worldwide, there are approximately 104 million people affected by TB, resulting in nearly 1.5 million deaths each year.

Anti- TB campaign poster

In Kenya, TB ranks as the fifth leading cause of death according to the Ministry of Health. The age groups that are most vulnerable to TB in Kenya are the very young, those under five years old, and the elderly, those over 65 years old.

Despite this, it is the reproductive age group, which includes individuals between 15 and 44 years old, that is most impacted by TB.

TB is airborne and it is rampant in densely populated areas in Kenya.